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Pharmacology Services

Our pharmacology services study how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals, whether chemical or biological in origin. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, interactions, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.



Pharmacokinetics (PK) investigations are to determine the fate of substances administered to a living organism. In practice, this discipline is largely focused on drug substances, though it can include all manner of compounds, such as nutrients, metabolites, hormones, toxins, etc. We often divide these studies into several areas including, but not limited to, the extent and rate of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion. This sometimes is referred to as the ADME scheme.

Absorption is the process of a substance entering the body. Distribution is the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. Metabolism is the irreversible transformation of substances and its daughter metabolites. Excretion is the elimination of the substances from the body. In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in a tissue in the body.

Pharmacokinetics is often studied in conjunction with pharmacodynamics. So while pharmacodynamics explores what a drug does to the body, pharmacokinetics explores what the body does to the drug.

Multiple Drug delivery methods can be used in conjunction with timed serial bleeds to collect blood for analysis.  Blood samples can be collected for serum or plasma.

Drug Absorption (Release Kinetics)

Test substances can be implanted and retrieved for analysis to determine a release profile of the test article.  These studies can be done independently or in conjunction with PK studies to determine both a release profile and the level of drug in the system.


Pharmacodynamics (PD) investigations study the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. Pharmacodynamics is often summarized as the study of what a drug does to the body, whereas pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to a drug.


Bioequivalence compares the bioavailability of a new drug formulation with a known standard.

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